With the locution weeds e intend all those grasses that somehow change the performance of the plant. Weeds, more than compromise the exterior aspect of the farming, have also other effects, as the reduction of the light, the removal of nutritive substances and, also more critical, the water absorption during summer periods. These plans, furthermore, are gifted of a rusticity that is highest to our plant. So, in the event of adverse conditions, the natural selection will arrange our plants that will die and not the weeds. The spread of these species happen with almost all the methods of reproduction, and for this reason in almost all the grounds we will find weeds.
DAMAGES PROVOKED BY WEEDS
Besides the water, nutritional elements and the light weeds thieve also vital spaces and in some cases they provoke also the dead of the farming. An example that everyone will remember is that of the bindweed, that having a twining bearing it wraps round the plant inducing its suffocation. Another problem that interests fruit-farm and the plants of the garden is the presence of flowers produced by the weeds that remove the attention of the pollinator insects from our farming lowering the pollination.
PREVENTIVE CONTROL OF THE WEEDS
To avoid the eruption of the problem is suitable to maintain clear the ground from the weeds and the infesting seeds. One of more important carrier of seeds is the manure, n fact it is not ripe and contains a big quantity of seeds, that the animal have eaten. At this point is good to avoid the use of manure if it is not good ripe. Other carriers of the sowing seeds are the irrigation waters that can contain beyond seeds also parts of rhizomes and roots of Weeds. Prefer irrigating methods with a net filter in the case we use dirty waters. Use mulches and herbicidal barks can decrease a lot of problem of Weeds.
DIRECT FIGHT AGAINST THE WEEDS
Mechanical fight: this system, that is more classic, consists in the eradication of the weeds by the hands, or with the assistance of a weeder.
Fight with physical instruments: this method is a lot used for the weeding of banks and ditches. To weed with the assistance of the fire, however, is not ever permit by the law and must be considered the closeness from the farmings and the wood.
Chemical fight: this sort of fight provides the employment of chemical herbicidals or weedillers. To intervene with this technique is suitable to know previously the selectivity of product and the damages that are provoked whether to the flora or to the fauna.
HOW ACT THE WEEDKILLERS
Weedkillers act for contact, translation or for a residual action.
Contact weedkillers: in this category are the products that erase the portion that has been knocked by the product, leaving unchanged the radical apparatus. This weeding is useful for the weeding of the annual weeds.
Translocated weedkillers: these products, also known as systemics, permit to the active ingredients to come into the plant and to erase also the radical apparatus. These products act mainly on the meristem of the plant, preventing the photosynthesis and the reproduction of the cells. It is a laver system than the previously but it guarantees a good result also on the perennial plants with a rhizomatous apparatus.
Weedkillers with a residual action: commonly called anti-seedling, forbid to the seed to germinate, they erase the weedkillers at the very fist stadium of the growing. At the difference of the previously these products can cover longer periods, guaranteeing a partial cleanliness of the ground.
APPLICATION OF THE WEEDILLERS
Contact weedillers and those one removable are distributed on the leaf, and they are absorbed through the stomas of the leaf, while those with a residual action are distributed on the ground.
PERIOD FOR THE TREATMENT
Treatments in pre-sowing activities: those Treatments are effected before our farming is planted or sowed. They are used before the semination on a meadow for cleaning it from the weeds and successively avoid selective weeds.
Treatments of post-emergency: these Treatments are used when our little plant is already come out of the ground: in this moment the plant is more subjected to the weeds because the competition for the light and the water is at the maximum level.
With this word we intend the capability of a specific weed to be more damaging for determinated essences. It is very important to remember that only if they are used with the right dosages and with the right parameters the weeds remain selective. Selective weeds are differentiated whether for their method of action or the distribution period.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ACTION OF THE WEEDS
Temperature: the temperature act a lot on the work of the weeds. Some systemic product for acting needs of temperatures not less of 8°. It is also true, however. That with the temperatures between 25° and 28° the plant decreases its physiological functions with a decreasing of the effectiveness of the weeds. A too elevated temperature, furthermore, decrease the evaporating period of the product, provoking a less performance of itself.
Rain: usually, after the treatment, do not should rain for a day, to permit to the active principle to come into the leaf. Backward, a positive action is done by the rain in the case of Treatments on the ground, increasing the effectiveness of the treatment.
Light: this factor act very positively for the systemic weeds, increasing the photosynthesis (it comes in circulation more easily than the active principle of the systemic product).