Rats belongs to the family of Muridi, Mammalians of the variety of Rodents; the common Rat is constitutionally more violent than the Mouse from which it distinguishes both for the larger dimension and for the hair more bristling.

The breed of Rattus is part of the numerous subfamily of Murine and besides, are known 56 breeds of type Rattus.

But the two breeds of Ratto, which infest the urban environment in Italy are:

  • RATTUS NORVEGICUS: also known as trench-ant, brown coloured, omnivorous, has an average life of 3-4 years, this breed of Ratto has got a middleweight of 350g and 20-25 cm long but can reach 500g of weight and 46 cm long filed the tail.
    Where it lives: the natural environment of this Ratto are the gutters and the drains being a good swimmer we can find it in channelling that communicates with sewers where it finds a lot of foods, along ditches and channels and where here are heaps of Refusals, in the cellars, under the bases of buildings or constructions but also in the holes burrowed in the ground
    Diet: being omnivorous this Ratto feeds of every household trash of little animals, of fishes, of reptiles and grains. The trench-rat proliferates in urban environments where it finds various feed sources as the fruit and the vegetable markets, fish markets, restaurants, storehouses and food establishments and farms, cafeterias, farming, green areas neglected.
    Procreation: this Ratto not having predators in urban environments has involved a significant reproductive capability, arriving quickly to an overcrowding, the female of this Ratto can procreate from 4-7 times during 1 year and can have 10-12 infants each time.
    Do not neglect the extraordinary characteristic of adaptability and of cleverness of this Ratto, in addition, for its genetic affinity with the human being a cut above than the Mouse, this Ratto is used as an animal example for studies in toxicology and study on the nervous system.
  • RATTUS RATTUS: black Rat or Rat of the Roofs, less diffused than the Rattus norvegicus and of dimensions slightly little. The black Rat has got a medium length of 16-20 cm and a medium weight of 280g, it is black coloured, has got a medium life of 3-4 years.
    Were it lives: also the black Rat lives in the gutters, in water and electrical pipes.
    Diet: as the Rattus norvegicus the black Rat is omnivorous liking better foodstuffs substances and being also dangerous for the population where there are Trashes and alimentary sources.
    Procreation: also the black Rat proliferate on the average from 20 to 30 infants during one year and into an urban environment can proliferate rapidly reaching quickly to an overcrowding.

The common Rat (norvegicus and black Rat) is a mammalian highly adaptable towards every environment, it is voracious and can feed of every substance also not food, as a matter of fact it creates often damages also at the power lines; in fact the common Rat, having a particular intelligence and belligerence and savagery and can attack farmings, but sometime directly the human being.


The natural habitat of the common Rat makes it carrier of dangerous and viral and bacterial diseases, just thinking that a Rat that lives in the gutters can be affected by over 30 diseases hat can transmit to the human being as: hydrophobia, typhus, toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis, fever from the bite of a Rat, salmonellosis, cholera and bubonic plague this one caused from a micro-organism Yersina pestis, carried by the Flea Xenopsylla cheopis parasite of the black Rat. The spreading happens from Rat to Rat and from Rat to the human being.

Provided that an only Rat be infected for the diffusion of these heavy diseases, and as harder to beat.

The Rat, if it is into its natural environment, faraway from the sewers and from rubbish tips, it could be a clean and healthy. In fact, as the cats and dogs exists tame Rats or domestic Rat that has been distinguished for morphological features different from a species to another and the leadings are:

  • Ratto mans (Rat without the tail)
  • Ratto dumbo (Rat of big proportions)
  • Ratto satin (Rat with soft and shining hair)
  • Ratto hairles (Ratto without the hair)

The domestic Rat unlike the common Rat, is very friendly and clever and can be instructed and can live together with other rodents like it.


We have seen that the Rat is a mammalian became dangerous for the human being in the urban and suburban environment, caused by a migration can be called “natural” of the murine colonies for the greater presence of foods and Trashes and sites that offers maintenance and harbour to the population of Rats.

The effective intervention for the removal of the population of Rats could be the eradication of the causes for the installation of Rats’ colonies erasing at this point deposits of Trashes, increasing the sewerage system etc.

These processes could guarantee the lowering of the Rats’ population but not ever can be possible these processes in the urban area, so are needed if not essential action of pest control that does not remove completely the installation of Rats because thanking to their generative capability, can come back from some individuals to a condition of overcrowding in not a lot moths.

For a larger and assured action for the removal of the murine’s colonies are essential periodical and permanent intervention of pest control.

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